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They look at the use of infrared, Raman and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopies to obtain combined imaging data of whole algal cells and discuss how to overcome the challenges.Dmitry Gakamsky and Anna Gakamsky describe how fluorescence may be used to diagnose cataracts in human eye lenses.The Handbook of Infrared Spectroscopy of Ultrathin Films provides a practical guide to experimental methods, up-to-date theory, and considerable reference data, critical for scientists who want to measure and interpret IR spectra of ultrathin films.This authoritative volume also: Offers information needed to effectively apply IR spectroscopy to the analysis and evaluation of thin and ultrathin films on flat and rough surfaces and on powders at solid-gaseous, solid-liquid, liquid-gaseous, liquid-liquid, and solid-solid interfaces.

Fortunately, the complex vibrational motion of a molecule can be broken down into a number of constituent vibrations called normal modes.It is difficult to detect forgeries just through expertise.The use of NIR imaging offers a number of ways to identify forgeries or authenticate the collage non-destructively; from determining the glue used to the revealing of printing on the back of the pieces or paper, which often have been taken from books and magazines.Because of the rapid increase in commercially available Fourier transform infrared spectrometers and computers over the past ten years, it has now become feasible to use IR spectrometry to characterize very thin films at extended interfaces.At the same time, interest in thin films has grown tremendously because of applications in microelectronics, sensors, catalysis, and nanotechnology.

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